Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797), Orange River, South Africa. Two subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Eléphant d’Afrique, eléphant africain; German: Der Afrikanische Elefant; Spanish: Elefante Africano.
L. a. africana: weight 4.4–7.7 T (4–7 t), shoulder top 8.2–13 ft (2.5–Four m), again concave; L. a. cyclotis: weight 2.2–4.Four T (2–Four t), shoulder top 6–9.Eight ft (1.8–three m), again straighter. Head much less excessive than Asian species and single domed, ears bigger and fold again at high, two fingers at finish of trunk. Both ####es possess tusks, these of the feminine being comparatively smaller.
Occurs in about 35 African states. In West Africa, solely thinly scattered, small populations stay, largely L. a. cyclotis; northernmost Sahel inhabitants (Mali) most likely a western extension of L. a. africana. Central African rainforests: nonetheless substantial, largely steady, populations of L. a. cyclotis. East and southern African savannas down to northernmost Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and South Africa (with massive gap in central Angola and neighboring areas): L. a. africana.
L. a. africana: woodland, shrub and tree savanna, floodplain grassland, and desert; L. a. cyclotis: evergreen rainforest, moist semi-deciduous forest, woodland, and forest/grassland margins.
L. a. africana, a minimum of traditionally, had a bent to combination in massive herds, particularly for seasonal migration. Social matriarchal society.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Daily grownup food consumption 220–660 lb (100–300 kg). Molar enamel with fewer, lozenge-shaped enamel bands.
Female alerts oestrus by a particular stroll, with the pinnacle held excessive whereas trying again over her shoulder, in addition to loud vocalizations. In courtship, feminine’s actions include spinning spherical and main the male on a mock chase. Males are aggressive. Gestation interval is 22 months. Birth weight 265 lb (120 kg).
Listed as Endangered by the IUCN, and on CITES Appendix I, besides some southern African international locations; moved to Appendix II in 2002.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Hunted for meat and ivory. Rarely domesticated.