Should we, with Max Muller, join the title Ares - like Mars -with the Sanskrit root mar, from which derive the Vedic maruts, storm-divinities? Or with the Greek root which implies 'carry away, destroy'? Both hypotheses are equally ingenious and equally unsure.
Ares Character and Representations
Ares originated in Thrace. He was all the time considered by the Greeks with extra terror than sympathy, and his function was strictly restricted. He was merely the god of warfare, of blind, brutal braveness, of bloody rage and carnage. Hypotheses which might make him primitively a fertility-god or a photo voltaic deity appear to be unfounded.
Actually we all know little extra about this god th an what the poets inform us. He was, nonetheless, honoured all through Greece and his cult was notably developed in Thrace and Scythia. He had a temple in Athens. Olympia honoured him underneath the title Ares-Hippios, and Sparta underneath that of Ares-Enyalius (the warlike). A spring was consecrated to him close to Thebes, beneath the temple of Apollo.
In Greek sculpture Ares was not represented by any particularly mounted sort. We scarcely know him besides from vase work. At first he was depicted as a bearded warrior sporting a helmet with a tall crest and wearing heavy armour. Later he seems as a younger man, virtually nude, who has retained little of his warlike attributes besides the spear and helmet.
The Rages of Ares
'Of all of the gods who dwell on Olympus', says Zeus within the Iliad to Ares, 'thou artwork probably the most odious to me; for thou enjoyest nothing however strife, warfare and battles. Thou hast the obstinate and unmanageable disposition of thy mom Hera, whom I can scarcely management with my phrases.'
In expressing these unfriendly sentiments to his son, the grasp of the gods precisely defines the character of Ares, 'a livid god, by nature depraved and fickle', who within the immortal society of Olympus discovered, it appears, little or no sympathy.
As god of warfare it was pure that he loved preventing. Mounted second quarter ot tne sixtn century B. u. on a chariot drawn by swift horses with golden forehead-bands, clad in bronze armour and greedy in his fingers an infinite spear, Ares ranged the battlefield, hanging lethal blows on all sides. His two squires, Deimos (Fear) and Phobos (Fright) - generally mentioned to be his sons - accompanied him, along with Eris (Strife), 'insatiable in her fury', Enyo, 'destroyer of cities', and the Keres, sombre divinities, keen to drink the black blood of the dying.
Though none disputed his warlike passion, Ares was disliked not just for his perpetual thirst for blood and slaughter which made him the 'scourge of mortals', however for his brutality and blind violence. It was on this, particularly, that he differed from Athene who, as a warrior-goddess, represented cool and clever braveness. Ares and Athene have been thus continuously opposed. Many occasions they encountered one another on the plains of Ilium the place they fought on reverse sides.
The very sight of Athene set Ares in a rage. 'Why, then, shameless fly, dost thine insatiable audacity enflame the warfare between the gods? What passion carries thee away? I believe that to-day thou shall pay for all thou hast performed to me!' With these phrases he struck the horrible aegis which even the thunderbolt of Zeus couldn't break.
Athene, drawing again, took up a stone which was mendacity on the plain: a black stone, rugged and monumental, which males of previous ages had put there to function a boundary stone for the sphere. She hurled it on the neck of the impetuous Ares. His knees gave manner and when he fell his physique coated seven acres. Dust dirty his hair and about him his armour jangled. Pallas Athene smiled and, glorying in her exploit, addressed to him winged phrases: 'Vain idiot! Hast thou not but realized how superior my energy is to thine?'
Indeed the impetuous Ares, opposite to what one may count on, hardly ever emerged victorious from fight. Nor was it solely the immortal gods who received the higher of him. Otus and Ephialtes, the 2 Aloadae, succeeded in binding and retaining him captive for 13 months. When he challenged Hercules, who had simply killed his son Cycnus, Ares was wounded by the hero and pressured to return groaning to Olympus. According to others, Zeus, who didn't want to see his two sons quarrel, put an finish to the combat by dropping a thunderbolt between the 2 combatants.
The Loves of Ares
He was scarcely extra blissful in his amorous affairs. Impressed by the glamour of the good-looking warrior whom she probably in contrast with Hephaestus, her ailing-favoured husband, Aphrodite fell in love with Ares. The sentiment was rapidly reciprocated. Ares took unscrupulous benefit of Hephaestus' absence to dishonour the marital sofa; however Helios, who had noticed the 2 lovers, reported the business to the smith-god.
Although a deceived husband is often an object of ridicule, Hephaestus was ready to parry the laughter by an ingenious artifice. Secretly he cast a internet so nice that it couldn't be seen, however so robust that it couldn't be damaged. He organized this internet above the sofa the place the lovers usually frolicked, and pretended to go away for Lemnos.
'As quickly as Ares noticed the industrious Hephaestus depart he directed his steps in the direction of the dwelling-place of the illustrious god, burning with love for Cytheraea of the honest crown. She was seated. He took her hand and mentioned, "Come, my dear, let us lie on the couch of Hephaestus, for thy good man has gone to Lemnos, the land of the barbarous-tongued Sintians."' Thus he spoke, and his phrases have been pleasing to the goddess. Soon they fell asleep and the invisible internet of the ingenious Hephaestus unfold over them. Then the limping god, who had retraced his steps, cried out in a horrible voice to all of the gods:
"Zeus and ye Immortals! Come in haste and see this intolerable thing, worthy of your laughter. Because I am lame Aphrodite despises me. She loves the fatal Ares because he is agile and handsome. See them both, asleep on my couch. Soon they will no longer care to sleep; for these cords will keep them bound together until Zeus returns the gifts I made him in order to obtain this impudent wench who cannot restrain her lust!"
Then the gods gathered collectively within the palace of bronze and frorn their throats rose roars of uncontrollable laughter which threw Ares and Aphrodite right into a state of maximum confusion. Hephaestus finally consented to free the 2 responsible ones when Ares promised to pay .him the value of the adultery. The responsible spouse iled to Paphos within the island of Cyprus and the seducer retired into the mountains of Thrace. From the union of Ares and Aphrodite a daughter was born, Harmonia, who later turned the spouse of Cadmus, King of Thebes.
Whether Ares had different misadventures of this nature is unknown, however he had little luck along with his kids.
By the nymph Aglauros Ares had a daughter, Alcippe. One day
Halirrhothius, son of Poseidon, ravished her and Ares killed him. For this homicide Poseidon summoned him earlier than the tribunal of the twelve nice gods, which met on a hill located in entrance of the Acropolis in Athens. Ares was acquitted. In reminiscence of this occasion the hill acquired the title of the Areopagus, and afterwards prison instances continued to be judged there.
Among the opposite kids of Ares who got here to sad ends it's adequate to point out: Phlegyas, son of Chryse, who was killed by Apollo; Diomedes, King of the Bistones of Thrace, who was put to loss of life by Hercules; Cycnus, son of Pelopeia or of Pyearene, who was additionally killed by Hercules: merciless and belligerent like his father, Cycnus used to assault travellers within the area of Tempe and use their bones for constructing a temple to his father. He challenged Hercules, who struck him down and, into the discount, wounded Ares himself, who had tried to defend his son. Some genealogies say that the sad Meleager, son of Oeneus and Althaea, was additionally the son of Ares.
Having seduced Harpina, daughter of the river-god Asopus, Ares had by her a son, Oenomaus, who reigned close to Olympia, and himself had a daughter, Hippodameia. Since an oracle had predicted that he can be killed by his son-in-regulation, Oenomaus, so as to eliminate her suitors, introduced that he would give bis daughter solely to the person who beat him in a chariot race. He was sure he would all the time win, as a result of Ares his father had made him a present of winged steeds. Pelops, nonetheless, carried away the prize, thanks to a treacherous ruse of Hippodameia herself, and Oenomaus discovered loss of life in defeat.
Finally, amongst mortal ladies who have been beloved by Ares, there was Aerope, daughter of Cepheus, who died in giving start to a son, Aeropus. However, thanks to the intervention of Ares, the new- bom babe was ready miraculously to suckle on the breast of his deceased mom.