TAXONOMY

Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758, Sri Lanka.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Indian elephant; French: Eléphant d’Asie, eléphant asiatique; German: Asiatische Elefant; Spanish: Elefante asiático.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Weight 3.3–5.5 T (3–5 t), shoulder top 6.6–9.eight ft (2–Three m), again convex, excessive double head domes, ears smaller than African species, fold forwards at high, one finger at tip of trunk. Pigment loss with age, leading to pink speckling of the ears and finally of the face and trunk: notably noticeable in E. m. maximus of Sri Lanka. Hairier than African species. Only males bear tusks, though females regularly possess tiny tusks known as “tushes,” which may simply be seen protruding kind the lip, particularly when the trunk is raised. A share (presently rising) of males congenitally lack tusks: often called “mukhnas,” these animals are thought to compensate by being particularly strongly-built, particularly within the higher trunk area.

DISTRIBUTION

Principally in Burma, Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam, with small populations (fewer than 500 people) in Bangladesh, Bhutan, southwest China, Indonesia (Kalimantan), and Nepal. About half the world inhabitants is in India, and half of that within the southwest of the nation. The principal attribute of the worldwide distribution is its fragmentation.

HABITAT

Wet evergreen forest, montane evergreen forest and grassland, semi-evergreen forest, moist deciduous forest, dry deciduous forest, savanna woodland, bamboo forest, dry scrub, and swampy floodplain grassland.

BEHAVIOR

May spend as a lot as 18–20 hours a day feeding. Very social, with a matriarchal construction: the oldest feminine is instrumental in deciding the group’s actions. There is a dominance hierarchy amongst bulls; they have a tendency to be solitary. This species will not be territorial.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Adult food consumption is 220–440 lb (100–200 kg) per day. In blended habitats, averaged over the season, roughly 50/50 browse and graze taken. Molars with better variety of enamel ridges than African elephant.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Pregnancy barely lower than 22 months; delivery weight 198 lb (90kg). Courtship conduct contains feminine standing face to face and intertwining trunks with the male. Males are aggressive.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Listed as Endangered by the IUCN, and on Appendix I of CITES.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Highly essential in cultures of southern Asia. Revered in faith, although captured for home work and warfare.

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