Augustine of Hippo (354–430) was one of a very powerful theologians of the traditional Christian church Aurelius Augustine was born and raised in North Africa. His mom, Monica, was a staunch Christian, however Augustine didn't at ﬁrst follow CHRISTIANITY .
He acquired an schooling in rhetoric and taught it in Carthage. Later he moved to Rome after which to Milan, the place he held a outstanding publish as an orator. These expertise served him nicely when he ultimately turned a spokesperson for Catholic Christianity.
In issues of faith, Augustine ﬁrst inclined to MANICHAEISM. This faith taught that two opposed forces, gentle and darkness, created the world once they by some means got here into contact. In time, Augustine deserted Manichaeism and toyed with the concepts of historical philosophers generally known as Skeptics. They took a cautious angle towards the power of human beings to know issues for sure.
In Milan, Augustine got here underneath the inﬂuence of Bishop Ambrose. From Ambrose he discovered the concepts of Plato and Plotinus. Plotinus had taught that the numerous issues of the world had all emanated from “the One.” In August 386 Augustine had a profound expertise. He heard a voice like that of a toddler saying, “Pick it up and read.” He picked up the BIBLE and skim a passage from PAUL’s letter to the Romans. He was so moved that he renounced his earlier life-style (characterised by ####ual immorality), adopted celibacy, and was baptized the subsequent EASTER. In 391 the people of Hippo in North Africa satisfied him to develop into a priest.
In 395 he turned their bishop. He spent the remainder of his life administering the church at Hippo, heading a monastery, preaching, instructing, and writing. His extremely inﬂuential books include the Confessions (c. 400), an account of Augustine’s lengthy highway to Christianity, and The City of God (413–426). The second e-book makes an attempt to present that Christianity didn't trigger the decline of the Roman Empire.
As a thinker, Augustine grappled with questions that turned basic within the historical past of European and North American THEOLOGY. Where does EVIL come from? If GOD already is aware of what human beings will do, how can they freely select their very own acts? What should people do so as to be saved? Augustine developed his solutions to questions like these within the course of attacking three totally different teams: Manichaeans, Donatists, and Pelagians. Donatists taught that members of the church have to be pure and that SACRAMENTS administered by sinful monks had been invalid. Pelagians stated that human beings may and may strive to be morally good.
In attacking these concepts, Augustine mixed biblical teachings, particularly teachings of the apostle Paul, with Greek philosophy, particularly the concepts of Plato and his many followers. God, Augustine insisted, is totally good. Evil comes into the world as a result of God creates human beings who're free to select. Since human beings are free to select, they won't at all times select good. In truth, as soon as ADAM sinned, his transgression was handed down to all of his descendants as authentic SIN. Original sin makes it unattainable for human beings to be good on their very own. They want the present of God’s GRACE earlier than they'll do good. One manner they obtain grace is thru sacraments like BAPTISM and the EUCHARIST. Sacraments are efficient as a result of God is at work in them.
Augustine wrote in his letters that he was “an African, writing for Africans . . . living in Africa.” But he additionally deﬁned the phrases that future European theologians, Catholic and Protestant, would use in making an attempt to specific their religion. His concepts inﬂuenced Protestant reformers like Martin LUTHER and John CALVIN tremendously. At the identical time, the Roman Catholic Church considers him a SAINT. It celebrates his feast on August 28, the date of his demise.