TAXONOMY
Tetracerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816), India.

OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Four-horned antelope; French: Tetracère; German: Vierhornantiope.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Body size 31.4–43.Three in (80–110 cm); shoulder peak 21.6–25.5 in (55–65 cm); tail size 3.9–5.9 in (10–15 cm); weight 33–55 lb (15–25 kg). Unique amongst Bovinae as a result of the males have two pairs of horns longer pair is 1.9–4.7 in (5–12 cm), clean, and black, placed on the prime of the top simply anterior to the ears; second pair is way smaller, between 0.7–1.5 in (2–Four cm) lengthy, and placed on the brow nicely between the orbits. Females are hornless, they usually exhibit little ####ual dimorphism. Pelage is brown to reddish brown on the again, getting lighter on the perimeters and altering to white alongside the stomach and insides of the legs. The anterior floor of every leg is darkish brown. The rostrum and brow is darkish brown to blackish. The outer surfaces of the ears are coloured equally they usually have an almost-black rim. The higher lip alongside the perimeters is white as is beneath the jaw. This modifications to a brown neck that's lighter than the again and sides.

DISTRIBUTION
Occur in thickets and wooded areas across most of India and into Nepal; absent from northeast India and the southern quarter of the Indian Peninsula. Occur in lots of parks and nature reserves, however are more and more absent from lands outside these protected areas.

HABITAT
Occupy a wide range of habitats akin to dry deciduous, dry deciduous scrub, and southern tropical moist combined deciduous forest sorts. Many of these forests happen in hilly terrain, however have some flatter areas offering small grassy openings. They frequent these meadows and different small openings, however by no means stray removed from dense thickets of bushes or bamboo the place they shortly retreat when disturbed. These landscapes are typically dissected with streams and small rivers, and they're regularly seen close to water.

BEHAVIOR
Normally discovered as solitary or in teams of two. During the rut, males are aggressive in the direction of different males. Individuals appear to occupy the identical house vary year-round.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Eat a wide range of crops and plant elements. As they journey their numerous habitats, they devour leaves of shrubs, shoots, fruit, and grasses.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY
Mating happens over a considerably protracted breeding season from June via September and coincides with monsoon wet season. Polygynous. Gestation is 7.5–eight months; most younger are born February via March. Adult females give beginning to between one to three younger.

CONSERVATION STATUS
Classified as Vulnerable. Although they're nonetheless extensively distributed of their historic vary, native populations face threats from looking for meat and lack of habitat to deforestation in addition to degradation of habitat due to grazing by livestock. Other conservation issues are that the areas occupied by chousingha are more and more turning into remoted as habitat fragmentation proceeds via agricultural practices.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
The species has little significance to people aside from its distinctive curiosity as the one mammal with 4 horns.

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