OTHER NAMES

French: Salamandre terrestre; German: Feuersalamander; Spanish: Salamandra pintada.

TAXONOMY

Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758, Nuremberg, Germany.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

With a complete size up to 11 in (28 cm), the European Fire Salamander is a robustly constructed animal with a comparatively brief tail. The species reveals appreciable variation in shade and pores and skin sample. Individuals could also be black with yellow markings or yellow with black or sometimes purple or orange markings. The markings could also be spots or stripes. The limbs are brief and stout with broad toes, and the tail is cylindrical and shorter than the physique. Females are barely bigger than males.

DISTRIBUTION

Europe.

HABITAT

The European fireplace salamander inhabits deciduous and, sometimes, coniferous forests at 656–3,280 ft (200–1,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Once it has accomplished its larval stage, the European fireplace salamander lives solely on land. Individuals reside in burrows and are territorial, defending the bottom across the burrow in opposition to intrusion by neighbors. Striking shade patterns act as warning coloration. Two rows of poison glands run alongside the physique, and a cluster of poison glands is current on either side of the pinnacle behind the eyes. When attacked, fireplace salamanders can squirt toxin from these glands over a substantial distance.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Fire salamanders are energetic at night time. They emerge from the burrow when circumstances are damp to forage for worms, bugs, insect larvae, and slugs.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

During mating, which takes place on land, the male grasps the feminine from beneath. He stimulates the feminine with glands on his head and when the feminine is receptive deposits a spermatophore. The male then flips his tail to one facet in order that the feminine falls onto it. The eggs develop inside the feminine and are finally launched into ponds or streams as larvae in clutches of 12–50 eggs. In a couple of, high-altitude populations, the larvae are retained within the feminine all through growth and are launched as miniature adults. During growth within the oviduct, larvae could also be cannibalistic, consuming smaller siblings. As a end result, just a few people in every clutch of eggs full growth.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. The vary has contracted in some areas because of deforestation. The inhabitants is declining in northern Spain for unknown causes.


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