God, Concept of in Major Religion

In Life Trends

The idea of God espoused by a faith can’t be judged by merely observing the apply of its followers. It is kind of widespread for the followers of many religions to be ignorant of the idea of God in their scriptures. It is due to this fact higher to analyse the idea of God in any faith by referring to its holy scriptures.

Anyway, let’s examine what faith is and its categories.

Religion proves God’s existence?

One of the distinguishing options of our civilisation is the presence of a big quantity of religions and moral methods. Mankind has at all times sought to perceive the rationale for creation and his personal place in the scheme of issues.

Arnold Toynbee studied the historical past of man by means of the ages and put his findings in a monumental work consisting of ten volumes. He summarised that in the historical past of man, faith stood because the centre. In an article in The Observer on October 24, 1954 he wrote:

I’ve come again a the assumption that faith holds the important thing to the thriller of existence;

Religion in accordance to the Oxford dictionary means “belief in a superhuman controlling power especially in a personal God or gods entitled to obedience and worship”.

A standard function of all main religions is the assumption in a Universal God or Supreme Divine Authority that’s Omnipotent and Omniscient. Followers of all main religions consider that the God they worship is identical God for them in addition to for others.

However, Marxism, Freudianism and different non-religious beliefs tried to assault the roots of organized faith. But these in flip, developed into perception methods themselves. For occasion, when communism was many international locations of the world it was preached with the identical dedication and fervour that characterizes preaching and propogation of (Characterises the act of preaching) religions.

Thus faith is an integral half of human existence.

The Glorious Qur’an says in the next verse:
“Say: ‘O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; That we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah’. If then they turn back, Say ye: “Bear witness that we (no less than) are Muslims (bowing to Allah’s Will)”. (Al – Qur’an 3:64)

Categorisation Of Major World Religions

Religions of the world may be broadly categorized into Semitic religions and non-Semitic religions. Non-Semitic religions may be divided into Aryan religions and non-Aryan religions.

Semitic religions

Semitic religions are religions that originated among the many Semites. According to the Bible, Prophet Noah had a son referred to as Shem. The descendents of Shem are often known as Semites. Therefore, Semitic religions are the religions that originated among the many Jews, Arabs, Assyearians, Phoenicians, and so on. Major Semitic religions are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. All these religions are Prophetic religions that consider in Divine Guidance despatched by means of prophets of God.

Non-Semitic religions

The non-Semitic religions are additional subdivided into Aryan and non-Aryan religions:

Aryan Religions

Aryan religions are the religions that originated among the many Aryans, a strong group of Indo-European talking people that unfold by means of Iran and Northern India in the primary half of the second Millenium BC (2000 to 1500 BC).

The Aryan Religions are additional subdivided into Vedic and non-Vedic religions. The Vedic Religion is given the misnomer of Hinduism or Brahminism. The non-Vedic Religions are Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, and so on. Almost all Aryan religions are non-Prophetic religions.

Zoroastrianism is an Aryan, non-Vedic faith, which isn’t related to Hinduism. It claims to be a prophetic faith.

Non-Aryan Religions

The non-Aryan religions have numerous origins. Confucianism and Taoism are of Chinese origin whereas Shintoism is of Japanese origin. Many of these non-Aryan religions don’t have an idea of God. They are higher referred to as moral methods relatively than as religions.

Concept of God in Major Religions Scriptures

Let us perceive the idea of God in main world religions by analysing what their scriptures have to say about it.

Concept of God in Hinduism (Everything is God)

The hottest among the many Aryan religions is Hinduism. Hindu is definitely a Persian phrase which stands for the inhabitants of the area past the Indus Valley. However in widespread parlance Hinduism is a blanket time period for an assortment of spiritual beliefs, most of whom are based mostly on the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagwad Geeta.

Hinduism is usually perceived as a polytheistic faith. Indeed, most Hindus would attest to this, by professing perception in a mess of Gods. Some Hindus consider in the system of three God whereas Some Hindus really consider in the existence of thirty-three crore i.e. 330 million Gods. However realized Hindus who’re effectively versed with their scriptures insist {that a} Hindu ought to consider in and worship just one God.

God as in Islam and Hinduism, Major Difference

The main difference between the Hindu and the Muslim notion of God is the widespread Hindus perception in the philosophy of Pantheism. Pantheism considers the whole lot, dwelling and non-living to be divine and sacred. The Hindus due to this fact take into account the bushes, the solar, the moon, the animals and even the human beings as manifestations of God. For the widespread Hindu, the whole lot is God.

Islam, quite the opposite, exhorts man to take into account himself and his environment as examples of divine creation relatively than as divinity itself. Muslims due to this fact consider that the whole lot is Gods i.e. God with an apostrophe s. In different phrases we consider that the whole lot belongs to God. The bushes, the Sun , the Moon and everthing in this (Universe belong to God.)

Thus the most important difference between the Hindu and the Muslim beliefs is difference of the apostrophes. The Hindus says the whole lot is God. The Muslim says the whole lot is Gods, i.e. God with an apostrophes.

The Holy Quran says :
“Come to widespread phrases as between us and also you.The first widespread time period is that we worship none however Allah.”

The first widespread time period is “that Islam worship none however Allah”.

So allow us to attempt to discover commonality by analysing each Hindu and Islamic scriptures.

Bhagwad Geeta

The hottest amongst all of the Hindu scriptures is the Bhagwad Geeta. Consider the next verse from the Geeta :
Those whose intelligence has been stolen by materials wishes give up unto demigods and observe the actual guidelines and laws of worship in accordance to their very own natures. [Bhagwad Geeta chapter 7 verse 20 (B.G. 7:20)]

The Geeta is referring to people who’re materialistic and due to this fact worship demigods i.e. besides the True God.


The upanishads are additionally thought-about sacred scriptures by the Hindus. Consider the next verses from the Upanishads :
“Ekam evaditiyam” i.e “He is One solely with out a second” [Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1]
“Na casya kasuj janita na cadhipah.” i.e”Of Him there are neither mother and father nor Lord” [Svetasavatara Upanishad 6,9] [ part II page 263.]
“Na tasya pratima asti” (There is no likeness of Him.)” [Svetasvatara Upanishad chapter 4:19]
“Nainam urdhvam na tiryancam na madhye na parijagrabhat na tasy pratime asti yasya nama mahad yasah.” i.e “There is no likeness of Him whose name is great glory”. [The principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg 736 & 737] [Sacred Books of the East, volume 15, the Upanishad part II page no 253]

Compare the above verses with the next verses of the Holy Quran

“And there is none like unto Him.” [Holy Quran , 112:4]
“There is nothing whatever like unto Him.” [Holy Quran ,42:11]

The following verses from the Upanishad allude to the shortcoming of Man to think about God in a specific type:

“Na samdrse tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa pasyati kas canaiam. Hrda hrdistham manasa ya enam, evam vidur amrtas te bhavanti”.
Meaning: “His form is not to be seen; no one sees Him with the eye. Those who through heart and mind know Him as abiding in the heart become immortal”. [Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:20]

The Holy Quran refers to this side in the next verse:
“No imaginative and prescient can grasp Him But His grasp is over
All imaginative and prescient: He is Above all comprehension,Yet is acquainted with all issues.”
[Holy Quran 6:103]

The Vedas

Vedas are thought-about probably the most sacred amongst all of the Hindu scriptures. There are Four foremost vedas. Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Sam Ved and AtharvaVed.

Consider the next verses from the Yajur ved:
“Na tasya pratima asti” that’s,”There is no image of Him” [Yajurved 32 : 3]

It additional says as
“He is unborn, He deserves our worship.”

“There is no image of Him whose glory verily is great. He sustains within Himself all luminous objects like the Sun etc. May He not harm me, this is my prayer. As He is unborn, He deserves our worship” [The Yajurveda by Devi Chand M. A. pg 377]

“He is bodyless and pure.” Is talked about in Yajurved 40 : 8:
“He hath attained unto the Bright, Bodiless, Woundless, Sinewless, the pure which evil hath not pierced. Far-sighted, wise, encompassing, he self-existent hath prescribed aims, as propriety demands, unto the Everlasting Years.” [Yajurved 40 : 8] [Yajurveda samhita by Ralph I. H. Griffith pg 538]

It can be talked about in the Yajur Veda:-
“Andhatama pravishanti ye asambhuti mupaste”

“They enter darkness, those who worship natural things”, for instance air, water, fireplace and so on “They sink deeper in darkness those who worship sambhuti Sambhuti means created things, for example table, chair, idol, etc”.
[Yajurved 40 : 9]

It additionally mentions a prayer stating
“Lead us to the good path and remove the sin that makes us stray and wander” [Yajurveda chapter 40 :16]

Consider the next verses from Atharva ved:-
“Dev maha osi” “God is verily great” [Atharvaveda 20 58 :3]
“Verily, Surya, thou art great; truly, aditya, thou art great.As thou art great indeed thy greatness is admire: yea, verily, great art thou, O God.”
(Atharveda Samhiti vol 2 William Dmight Whitney pg 910)

An identical message is given in Quran in Surah Rad:
“He is the Great, the most High.” [The Holy Quran 13 :9]

Also in Rig Ved, the oldest of all of the vedas is Rig veda. It can be the one thought-about most sacred by the Hindus. The Rig Ved states that
“Sages (learned Priests) call one God by many names”.
[Rigveda 1:164:46)]

The Rigveda offers a minimum of 33 totally different attributes to Almighty God, Many of these are talked about in Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1

Amongst the assorted attributes given in Rigveda, one of the gorgeous attributes! Mentioned in Rigveda Subh II verse Three for Almighty God is Brahma. Brahma means The Creator. Translated into Arabic this phrase it means Khaliq. Muslims can haven’t any objection if Almighty God is referred to as Khaliq or Creator or Brahma. However Muslims positively don’t subscribe to the view that Brahma is Almighty God who has 4 heads (nauzubillah), Muslims take robust exceptation to it.

Describing Almighty God in anthropomorphic phrases additionally goes in opposition to the next verse of Yajurveda:

“Na tasya Pratima asti” (There is not any picture of Him) [Yajur Ved 32 : 3]

Another stunning attribute talked about in the Rigveda Book II hymn 1 verse 3 (R.V. 2:1:3) is Vishnu. Vishnu means The Sustainer. Translated into Arabic it means Rabb. Again, Muslims can haven’t any objection if Almighty God is referred to as Rabb or Sustainer or Vishnu. But the favored picture of Vishnu amongst Hindus is that of a God who has 4 arms, with one of the suitable arms holding the Chakra ie a discus and one of the left arms holding a conch shell, driving a chicken or reclining on a snake sofa. Muslims can by no means settle for any picture of God. As talked about earlier this additionally goes in opposition to Yajurveda chatper 40 verse 19.

Consider the next verses from the Rigved too:
“Ma chidanyadvi shansata” that’s, “O pals, don’t worship anyone however Him, the Divine One. [Rigveda Book 8 :1:1]
[Rigveda samhiti vol ix, pg 1 and 2 by swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati and satyakam Vidhya Lankar]

The smart yogis focus their minds; and focus their thought as effectively in the Supreme Reality, which is Omnipresent, Great and Omniscient. He alone, understanding their features, assigns to the sense organs their respective duties. Verily, nice is the glory of to Divine Creator. [Rigveda 5:81]
[Rigveda Samhiti volume 6 page 1802 and 1803 by Swami SatyaPrakash Saraswati and Satyakam Vidhyalanka]

Furthermore, “Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan”
“There is just one God, not the second; under no circumstances, under no circumstances, not in in the slightest degree”.

Thus solely a dispassionate examine of the Hindu scriptures may help one perceive the idea of God in Hinduism.

Concept Of God In Sikhism

Sikhism is a non-semitic, Aryan, non Vedic faith. Though not a significant faith of the world, it’s a department or offshoot of Hinduism based by Guru Nanak on the finish of the 15th Century. It originated in the Area of Pakistan and North West India referred to as Punjab which means the land of the 5 rivers. Guru Nanak was born in a Kshatriya (warrior caste) Hindu household however was very strongly influenced by Islam and Muslims.

Sikh AND Sikhism

The phrase ‘Sikh’ is derived from the phrase Sisya which means disciple or follower. Sikhism is a faith of 10 Gurus, the primary Guru being Guru Nanak and the 10th and the final being Guru Gobind Singh. The sacred guide of Sikhism is Sri Guru Granth additionally referred to as Adi Granth Sahib.

The Five  Ks

Every Sikh is meant to preserve the 5 Ks that are additionally function his identification.

    Kesh – uncut hair; which all of the Gurus saved

    Kangha  comb; used to preserve the hair clear.

    Kada  steel or metal bangle; for energy and selfrestrain

    Kirpan  dagger; for self defence

    Kaccha  particular knee size underwear or underdrawler for agility

Mulmantra: The Fundamental Creed of Sikhism

The greatest definition that any Sikh can provide relating to idea of God in Sikhism is quote the “Mul Mantra” the basic creed of Sikhism, which happens initially of Guru Granth Sahib.

It is talked about in Sri Guru Granth Sahib quantity 1 Japuji, the primary verse

“There exists however one God, who is named the true the creator, free from concern and hate, immortal not begotten, self-existant, Great and compassionate.”

Sikhism enjoins on its followers strict monothiesm. It believes in solely One Supreme God who’s, in the unmanifest type referred to as ‘ek omkara’.

In the manifest type He is named as Omkara and has a number of attributes equivalent to:

  • Kartar – The Creator
  • Sahib – The Lord
  • Akal – The Eternal
  • Sattanama – The Holy title
  • Parvardigar – The Cherisher
  • Rahim – The Merciful
  • Karim – The Benevolent
  • Also referred to as Wahe Guru – the One true God.
  • Besides Sikhism being strictly monotheistic, it doesn’t consider in Avataravada  the doctrine of incarnation. Almighty God doesn’t incarnate Himself in what is called Avatara. Sikhism can be strongly in opposition to idol worship.

    Guru Nanak was influenced by the sayings of Sant Kabir a lot that a number of chapters of Shri Guru Nanak Sahib include couplets of Sant Kabir.

    One of the well-known couplets of Sant Kabir is
    “Dukh mein Sumirana sabh karein Sukh mein karein na koya Jo sukh mein sumirana karein To dukh kaye hoye”
    (Everyone remembers God throughout hassle however nobody remembers Him throughout peace and happiness. The one who remembers God throughout peace and happiness why ought to he have hassle ?).

    Compare this with the next verse of the Holy Quran:
    “When some hassle toucheth man, He crieth unto his Lord, Turning to Him in repentance: But when He bestoweth A favour upon him As from Himself, (man) Doth neglect what he cried And prayed for earlier than, And he doth arrange rivals unto Allah” [Holy Quran 39:8]

    Concept Of God in Zoroastrianismm

    Zoroastrianism is an historic Aryan faith which originated in Persia greater than 2500 years in the past. Though it has comparatively few adherents, lower than 100 and thirty thousand in the entire world, it’s one of the oldest religions. The Iranian Prophet Zoroaster was the founder of Zoroastrianism (additionally generally often known as Parsiism). The sacred scripture of the Parsis is the Dasatir and Avesta.

    God in Zoroastrian faith is called Ahura Mazda Ahura means the Lord and Mazda means the Wise therefore Ahura Mazda means the Wise Lord or the Wise God. Ahura Mazda stands for a strict type of Monotheistic God.

    Qualities of God in accordance to Dasatir

    According to Dasatir, Ahura Mazda has the next qualities :

  • He is One.
  • Nothing resembles Him.
  • He is with out an origin or finish.
  • He has no father or mom, spouse or son.
  • Without a physique or type.
  • Neither the attention can behold Him, nor the ability of pondering can conceive him.
  • He is above all imaginable of.
  • He is nearer to you than your personal self.
  • Qualities of God in accordance to Avesta

    According to Avesta, the Gathas and the Yasna give the assorted traits to Ahura Mazda equivalent to

  • Creator -(Yasna 31:7 & 11) (Yasna 44:7) (Yasna 50:11) (Yasna 51:7)
  • Most Mighty – the Greatest (Yasna33:11) (Yasna 45:6)
  • Beneficent – Hudai. (Yasna 33:11) (Yasna 48:3)
  • Bountiful – Spenta; (Yasna 43:4,5,7,9,11,13,15) (Yasna 44:2) (Yasna 45:5) (Yasn 46:9) (Yasna 48:3)
  • Concept of God in Judaism

    Judaism is one of the most important Semitic religions. Its followers are often known as Jews and so they consider in the prophetic mission of Prophet Moses.

    The following verse from Deuteronomy comprises an exhortation from Moses
    “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad” It is a Hebrew citation which implies
    “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord” [The Bible, Deut 6:4]

    Consider the next verses from the Book of Isaiah:
    “I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there isn’t a saviour.” [The Bible, Isaiah 43:11]
    “I’m lord, and there may be none else There is not any God besides me.” [The Bible, Isaiah 45 : 5]
    “I’m God, and there may be none else; I’m God, and there may be none like me.” [ The Bible, Isaiah 46:9]

    Judaism condemns idol worship in the next verses :
    “Thou shalt haven’t any different gods earlier than me.Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven picture, or any likeness of something that’s in heaven above, or that’s in the earth beneath, or that’s in the water underneath the earth.Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor see them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…” [The Bible, Exodus 20:3-5]

    An identical message is repeated in the guide of Deutoronomy:
    “Thou shalt have none different gods earlier than me.Thou shalt not make thee any graven picture, or any likeness of something that’s inheaven above, or that in the earth beneath, or that’s in the water beneath the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…” [The Bible, Deut 5:7-9]

    Concept of God in Christianity

    Christianity is a Semitic faith, which claims to have almost two billion adherents everywhere in the world. Christianity owes it title to Jesus Christ. Jesus can be a revered determine in Islam.Islam is the one non-Christian Faith that prescribes religion in Jesus:

    Before we focus on the idea of God in Christianity allow us to look at the place of Jesus in Islam:

  • Islam is the one non-Christian religion, which makes it an article of religion to consider in Jesus. No Muslim is a Muslim if he doesn’t consider in Jesus.
  • Islamic followers consider that he was one of the mightiest Messengers of Allah (SWT).
  • It is consider that he was born miraculously with none male intervention, which many modern-day Christians don’t consider.
  • Also consider that He gave life to the useless with Gods permission.
  • It is consider that He healed these born blind, and the lepers with Gods permission.
  • One might ask, if each Muslims and Christians love and respect Jesus, the place precisely is the parting of methods? The main difference between Islam and Christianity is the Christians insistence on the supposed divinity of Christ. A examine of the Christian scriptures reveals that Jesus by no means claimed divinity. In reality there may be not a single unequivocal assertion in your entire Bible the place Jesus himself says, I’m God or the place he says, worship me. In reality the Bible comprises statements attributed to Jesus in which he preached fairly the opposite. Consider the next statements in the Bible, attributed to Jesus Christ:
    “My Father is Greater than I” (John 14:28)
    My Father is Greater than all” (John 10:29)
    “I forged out devils by the spirit of God. (Mathew 12:28)
    …with the finger of God forged out devils.. (Luke 11:20)

    “I can of mine personal self do nothing: as I hear, I choose; and my judgement is simply; as a result of I search not my very own will, however the will of the Father, which hath despatched me.”

    God despatched Jesus

    The Bible mentions the prophetic nature of Jesus mission in the next verses:
    “…and the phrase whic h ye hear is just not mine, however the Fathers which has despatched me.” (The Bible, John 14:24)

    “And that is life everlasting, that they could know thee the one true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou has despatched.” (The Bible,John 17:3)

    Jesus refuted even a distant suggestion of his divinity. Consider the next incident talked about in the Bible:
    “And, behold, one got here and stated unto him, Good grasp, what good factor shall I do, that I could have everlasting life?
    “And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one, that is, God; but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.”

    And maybe, this sums it up
    “Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, A man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know.”

    Concept of God in Islam

    Islam is a Semitic faith, which has greater than 1.2 billion adherents everywhere in the world. Islam means submission to the desire of Allah. Muslims settle for the Quran, because the phrase of God revealed to Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). Islam states that Allah despatched messengers and prophets all through the ages with the message of the Unity of God, and accountability in the Hereafter. Islam thus makes it an article of religion to consider in the sooner prophets, beginning with Adam, and together with Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, John, Jesus and lots of others (might peace be on all of them).

    Who is God in Islam?

    The most concise definition of God in Islam is given in 4 verses of Surah Ikhlas which is Chapter 112 of the Holy Quran:

    “Say: He is Allah, The one and Only.
    “Allah, the Eternal, Absolute.
    “He begets not, neither is He begotten. “And there is none like unto Him.”
    [Holy Quran 112:1-4]

    The phrase Assamad is tough to translate. It means absolute existence, which may be attributed solely to Allah, all different existence being temporal or conditional. It additionally implies that Allah is just not depending on any particular person or factor however all individuals and issues are depending on Him.

    What does Islam say about god-men?

    India is usually referred to as the land of god-men. This is due to the abundance of so referred to as non secular masters in India. Many of these babas and saints have a big following in many international locations. Islam abhors deification of any human being.

    God doesn’t turns into a human being & WHY?

    Some people argue that God can do the whole lot, then why can’t He take human type? If God needs He can turn into a human being. But then He not stays God as a result of the qualities of God and human beings in many respects are fully incompatible. The following paragraphs will present the absurdity of the thought of God turning into a human being.

    God is immortal and human beings are mortal. You can’t have a God- man i.e. an immortal being, and on the similar time and in the identical entity. It is meaningless. God doesn’t have a starting whereas human beings have a starting. You can’t have an individual, not having a starting and on the similar time having a starting. Human being have an finish. We can’t have a being, which has no finish and an finish on the similar time.

    God Almighty doesn’t require to eat whereas human beings require nourishment to maintain life.

    God doesn’t require relaxation or sleep whereas human beings can’t go indefinitely with out relaxation.

    God doesn’t neglect nor does He make errors.

    Attribute of God is exclusive and possessed by Him alone

    Not solely does God possess distinctive attributes, but additionally every attribute of Almighty God is ample to establish Him. I shall make clear this level in element. Suppose we take the instance of a well-known character, say astronaut Neil Armstrong.

    If somebody says Neil Armstrong is an American. The attribute of being American possessed by Neil Armstrong is appropriate however not ample to establish him. Similarly Neil Armstrong is an astronaut. The attribute of being an astronaut is just not distinctive to Neil Armstrong . To establish the particular person uniquely we should search for a singular attribute. For instance, Neil Armstrong was the primary human to set foot on the moon. So when one asks, who was the primary man to set foot on the moon, the reply is just one, i.e. Neil Armstrong. Similarly the attribute of Almighty God needs to be distinctive e.g. Creator of the Universe. If I say creator of the constructing, it could be potential and true however it’s not distinctive. Thousands of people could make a constructing, so there could be no difference between man and God. But every attribute of God factors to none however God.

    One attribute of God shouldn’t contradict with different attributes. All attributes ought to level to the one and similar God.

    God of All; A Unified God

    Some polytheists argue by saying that the existence of a couple of God is just not illogical. Let us level out to them that if there have been a couple of God, they’d dispute with each other, every God making an attempt to fulfill his will in opposition to the desire of the opposite Gods.

    This may be seen in the mythology of the polytheistic and pantheistic religions. If a God is defeated or unable to defeat the others, he’s certainly not the one true God. Also well-liked amongst polytheistic religions is the thought of many Gods, every having totally different tasks. Each one could be answerable for a component of mans existence e.g. a Sun god, a Rain god, and so on. This signifies that one God is incompetent of sure acts and furthermore he’s additionally ignorant of the opposite Gods duties and tasks. There can’t be an ignorant and incapable God.

    If there have been a couple of God it could certainly lead to confusion, dysfunction, chaos and destruction in the Universe. But the universe is in full concord.