In the traditional Middle East, the god Utu, referred to as Shamash in Akkadian, was a Sumerian solar deity. As the personiﬁcation of the solar, whose gentle illuminates darkness, the god Utu sought justice for each gods and mankind.
In Sumerian myths, Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god. He was additionally the dual brother of Inanna, the goddess of heaven. In later Akkadian traditions, he was the son both of the sky god, An, or of Enlil, a god of creation.
Utu’s consort was Sherida (Akkadian, Aya), the goddess of sunshine. In narrative tales of the land of Aratta, the hero Lugalbanda was known as the son of Utu.
Utu is depicted in examples courting from the twenty-fourth century B.C.E.as a bearded deity with rays emanating from his shoulders. He often is proven along with his emblem, a serrated noticed, which in all probability referred to his function because the guardian of justice. A Babylonian hymn signifies that the noticed was used to punish criminals. Some pictures present Utu rising from the japanese mountains in the morning, as two deiﬁed attendants open the gates of heaven.
Utu was additionally believed to have an attachment to people. Meshkiagasher, a legendary king of the town of Uruk, was mentioned to have been an offspring of the god. Utu can be a personality in the Sumerian poem “Dumuzi’s Dream,” which describes how Dumuzi, husband of Inanna and brother-in-law of Utu, prayed to Utu for assist.
In the Sumerian story of the enmity between Enmerkar and Ensuhgirana, the lord ofAratta, Utu responded to the cries of the
cowherd and shepherd whose animals had been bewitched by a sorcerer.
In the Babylon legend of Etana, Utu, right here known as Shamash, helped a trapped eagle to escape from a pit. The legendary King Etana had no inheritor and prayed to Shamash to grant him one. In a dream, Etana heard the voice of the god of justice, who instructed him to go to the help of the eagle. In return for his help, the fowl would assist him ﬁnd the legendary plant of fertility. Etana freed the eagle, which carried him to heaven in search of the “Plant of Giving Birth.”
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Shamash (once more, the title used for Utu), upon the request of the goddess Ninsun, the mom of Gilgamesh, protected and assisted the hero in his battle with the Humbaba monster. In a later episode, after Gilgamesh and Enkidu subdued and killed the Bull of Heaven, the 2 heroes ripped out its coronary heart, prostrated themselves earlier than the god Shamash, and offered the guts to him.