Manis crassicaudata Gray, 1827, India.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Thick-tailed pangolin; French: Grand pangolin de l’inde; Spanish: Pangolín indio.
Indian pangolins have a head and physique size of two.0–2.2 ft (60–65 cm), a tail size of 1.5–1.Eight ft (45–55 cm), and a weight of 17.6–19.Eight lb (8–9 kg). Male Indian pangolins could also be as a lot as 90% heavier than females. They have giant, pale yellowish brown or yellow-gray scales, with brownish pores and skin and hair; with about 14–16 rows of scales on the tail. Scales make up about one-fourth to one-third of physique weight. The head is small and triangular in form, and the physique is slender and lengthy. They possess small, undeveloped, exterior ears, have a scaleclad tail, and still have hairs on the base of the physique scales. Each limb accommodates 5 highly effective claws which can be tailored for digging burrows or finding their prey’s nests. They don’t have any tooth so their two-chambered abdomen crushes all their food. The tongue is 9–10 in (23.0–25.5 cm) lengthy, and is their essential means to seize food. Because the tongue is so lengthy they’ve muscular attachments extending all the way in which to the pelvis.
India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
They desire hilly areas and plains, largely in tropical areas. The species has been seen in tropical rainforests, subtropical thorn forests, plains, and the decrease slopes of mountains. Burrows vary in depth and depend upon soil kind. Soft soils will permit the animal to dig burrows about 20 ft (6 m) deep, whereas rocky, laborious soils will permit depths of about 6 ft (2 m). They often shut the burrow entrance with unfastened soil when they’re inside, which hides the doorway from predators..
Indian pangolins are largely nocturnal, sleeping and resting in burrows or amongst rocks throughout the day. They are predominantely terrestrial but in addition have nice agility for climbing with their prehensile tail and sharp claws. They are good diggers, typically making tunnels that finish in an enlarged cave. Indian pangolins stay largely alone aside from the mating and breeding season, when grownup female and male pangolins are present in the identical burrow. They shield themselves from predators by curling up right into a ball, exposing solely its scales. Anal glands emit a foul smelling, yellow fluid for added protection in opposition to enemies.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Indian pangolins eat termites, ants, termite and ant eggs, and different bugs from floor mounds and hills.
Their gestation interval is about 65–70 days. Births could happen all year long, with births having been recorded in January, March, July, and November. Females give start to 1–2 younger at a time. Weight at start is 8.2–8.6 oz (230–240 g). Scales of younger are tender, with absolutely functioning eyes and legs. At about one month of age, younger are carried on the dorsal base of the mom’s tail when foraging. At about three months of age the younger are (believed to be) weaned. S*xual maturity and life span within the wild for Indian pangolins are unknown.
Lower Risk/Near Threatened, and listed on CITES Appendix I. Their essential enemies are people, giant cats (particularly leopards, lions, and tigers), hyenas, and pythons.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
They are hunted for meat, particularly in Pakistan as a result of a few of their physique components are used for medicinal functions. Scales are thought to be an aphrodisiac, and sometimes used to make necklaces and sneakers.