OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Mt. Meru chameleon, three-horned chameleon; French: Caméléon de Jackson; German: Ostafrikanisches Dreihornchamäleon.
This species grows to 6–14 in (152–356 mm) in size. Ch. j. xantholophus is the most important, adopted by Ch. j. jacksonii after which Ch. j. merumontanus. Males have three annulated (composed of rings) horns, two preorbital and one nasal in all three types. Females might haven’t any horns, a single nasal horn, or three welldeveloped horns which can be barely smaller than these of the males, relying on the subspecies. The physique coloration is shades of inexperienced or brown with a darkish purple, yellow, or blue wash on the pinnacle, flanks, or tail. Juveniles are brown, black, and offwhite and present an infusion of grownup coloration at in regards to the age of six months.
Ch. j. jacksonii occupies the highland of central Kenya, besides the japanese slopes of Mount Kenya. Ch. j. xantholophus lives on the southern, japanese and northeastern faces of Mount Kenya and in Kenya and has been launched to Hawaii. Ch. j. merumontanus inhabits Mount Meru in Tanzania at an elevation of seven,500–9,000 ft (2,288–2,745 m).
This is a montane, arboreal species that makes use of varied habitat sorts, together with moist forest, unique plantations, and dense bushes.
Jackson’s chameleon is docile and delicate. Males settle territorial and mating disputes by participating in pushing contests with their horns, however they not often resort to biting or inflict harm. Females typically are very calm and tolerant of conspecifics.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Jackson’s chameleon preys on all kinds of invertebrates.
Males have interaction in ritualistic head bobbing to court docket females. Nonreceptive females turn out to be darkish, rock, gape, and should grasp the forelegs or horns of an advancing male. If the feminine is receptive, she lifts her tail to facilitate copulation. Gestation varies from 5 to 9 months, relying on ambient temperatures. The species is ovoviviparous (live-bearing), with births of three to 50 younger per clutch, relying on the subspecies.
Jackson’s chameleon is listed on CITES Appendix II. Kenya ceased exporting specimens of Ch. j. jacksonii and Ch. j. xantholophus within the early 1980s. Hawaii considers feral Jackson’s chameleons detrimental to the ecosystem. The species lives primarily in extremely degraded habitat and unique plantations, the place it’s believed to have tailored efficiently to dwelling in shut proximity to people.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
The species was exported from Kenya in very excessive numbers for the business pet commerce starting within the 1960s, which was accompanied by very excessive ranges of morbidity and mortality by way of the 1980s, when Kenya stopped exportation. From 1993 to 1999 greater than 12,000 Ch. j. merumontanus people had been exported from Tanzania, however it’s unknown as of 2002 whether or not this has had a detrimental impact on inhabitants densities. This subspecies didn’t adapt nicely to captivity, and replica is poor. Several generations of Ch. j. xantholophus originating from Hawaii had been bred in captivity within the 1990s however solely by a only a few people worldwide.