Enmerkar from Sumerian Mythology
Enmerkar was the second king of the First Dynasty of Uruk, in accordance to the Sumerian kings record, the traditional text that lists the kings of Sumer. He was stated to have reigned for 420 years after the ﬂood, within the early a part of the third millennium B.C.E.
The two tales that comply with have been a part of a collection of 4 in regards to the “matter of Aratta.” They have been in all probability composed within the metropolis of Ur over the past century of the third millennium B.C.E.
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratt
Several tales cope with the conﬂict between Enmerkar and the lord of the legendary jap mountain territory often known as the land of Aratta. In the epic story Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Enmerkar is described because the king of Uruk and the son of the solar god, Utu. Enmerkar was united in a sacred marriage with Inanna, the goddess of Uruk. Inanna selected Enmerkar to be closest to her coronary heart, but the lord of Aratta additionally claimed to be her partner.
The story is ready in historical days, earlier than the E-ana temple of Inanna was based or commerce between Sumer and the peoples of the mountains had commenced.
Enmerkar ordered a messenger to go to Aratta and inform the inhabitants and their lord to submit to the yoke of Uruk. The messenger traveled over seven mountains, reached the lord of Aratta, and delivered the message. After the messenger had spoken, the lord of Aratta insisted that it was he who had been chosen by Inanna. The lord refused to acquiesce to Enmerkar’s outrageous calls for and challenged Enmerkar to a contest of wits. The victor could be the ruler of Utuk and Aratta.
The lord of Aratta despatched Enmerkar’s messenger again with directions to inform Enmerkar that he would have to relieve the famine that had gripped Aratta by offering grain. The barley, in accordance to the challenge, was not to be poured into sacks within the regular method after which delivered in carts. Instead, it was to be poured into nets and loaded onto pack asses. Upon reaching the lord’s courtyard, the grain was to be heaped up in an excellent pile.
Enmerkar accepted the challenge. He ordered the nets to be ﬁlled with inexperienced malt. The malt germinated and ﬁlled within the mesh ofthe nets. Grain from the storehouse was loaded into the nets with an additional measure added to account for loss by locusts. The grain was dispatched with a message for the lord of Aratta that he should submit and settle for Enmerkar’s scepter. He was then to snap off a splinter from the scepter and maintain it in his hand as image of his vassalage.
But the lord of Aratta held ﬁrm. He would give up provided that Enmerkar’s scepter was made from one thing aside from wooden, gold, copper, silver, or treasured stone. “Then let Enmerkar bring it to me,” stated the lord of Aratta.
With recommendation from the sensible god Enki, Enmerkar solved this riddle as properly. He grew a particular reed, nurtured it for ten years, then break up it with an axe and despatched it to Aratta.
The lord of Aratta was greatly surprised by Enmerkar’s cleverness, however he proposed one final challenge—a duel between two champions, one from Aratta and one from Uruk. His solely situation was that the person from Uruk must be one who wore a garment of no recognized shade. Enmerkar offered his ﬁghter with an undyed garment that had no shade.
Enmerkar ready to ship a messenger demanding as soon as and for all that the lord of Aratta submit. But his message was too lengthy, and the messenger drained as he tried to be taught it. So Enmerkar inscribed the message on a pill and despatched it to Aratta.
The message was written in cuneiform indicators that the lord of Aratta was unable to learn. The lord turned indignant however realized he had been defeated by a superior mind.
Suddenly, Inanna’s brother, the storm god Ishkur, introduced rain to Aratta. The famine was over. Barley started to sprout on the mountainsides, and chickpeas and wheat started to develop. The lord of Aratta’s self-assurance returned. He was overjoyed that the goddess had not deserted him and his people however remained by their facet.
At this level within the story, the lord of Aratta allowed that Enmerkar had triumphed. Unfortunately, the ending is fragmentary and the aim for which the story was created stays debatable.
Enmerkar and Ensuhgirana
The composition Enmerkar and Ensuhgirana relates one other episode within the persevering with conﬂict and contest of wills between Enmerkar, the lord of Uruk, and his rival, the lord of Aratta. In this story, the lord of Aratta is known as Ensuhgirana.
The lord of Aratta despatched a message to Enmerkar, demanding that he submit and bear the yoke of vassalage. Ensuhgirana additional taunted Enmerkar, claiming that solely he was the true bridegroom of the goddess Inanna.
Enmerkar rejected Ensuhgirana ’s claims and maintained that he was the true lover of the goddess Inanna in addition to the true king, ruling with the authority granted to him by the gods.
When Enmerkar’s response reached the ears of his rival, Ensuhgirana was perplexed, unable to make an instantaneous reply. He referred to as collectively a council of his monks and attendants to advise him. They urged him to again off from his aggressive place, relax, and search compromise. But Ensuhgirana rejected this recommendation and deﬁantly said that he would proceed to oppose Enmerkar even when his metropolis was destroyed. He would by no means submit to the lord of Uruk.
The Sorcerer and the Wise Woman
A sorcerer volunteered to assist Ensuhgirana, claiming that he had the facility to make Uruk submit to Aratta. Happy to hear the sorcerer’s boast, Ensuhgirana rewarded him with silver and promised additional fee when the lads of Uruk have been taken captive.
The sorcerer arrived in Uruk and dried up the milk of the cows and goats. The milk, butter, and cheese of the livestock offered for the cult of the goddess Nisaba. Despondent, Nisaba’s shepherds and cowherds referred to as for assist.
A sensible outdated lady named Sagburu from town of Eresh challenged the sorcerer to a battle to determine whose magic was stronger. Both threw ﬁsh spawn into the river. The sorcerer turned the ﬁsh spawn into a big carp, a ewe, a lamb, a cow, an ibex, a wild sheep, and a gazelle child. The sensible lady turned the ﬁsh into predators ready to seize and kill the sorcerer’s creations.
Defeated, the sorcerer begged the outdated lady for mercy, however she refused; his offense was too nice. The sorcerer was thrown from the financial institution of the Euphrates River to his loss of life. The news of the defeat and loss of life of the sorcerer broke Ensuhgirana’s spirit. He admitted defeat and acknowledged the prevalence of the king of Uruk.
The tales of Enmerkar incorporate a number of historical story components and due to this fact are of nice curiosity to folklorists and storytellers. In the ﬁrst story, for instance, the messenger traveled the magical seven mountains, as happens in lots of folktales of heroic journeys. The riddle contest and magicians’ duel are story sorts which can be featured in world folklore.