OTHER NAMES

English: Long-billed marsh wren; French: Troglodyte de marais; German: Sumpfzaunkönig; Spanish; Saltapared Pantañero.

TAXONOMY

Certhia palustris Wilson, 1810, jap Pennsylvania. 15 sub-species acknowledged.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

4.5–5 in (11.5–12.5 cm). Male 0.43–0.5 oz, imply 0.45 oz (12.1–14 g, imply 12.7 g). Populations in western North America weigh barely much less. Crown is blackish brown; again is medium-brown with broad collar of blackish; streaked white on higher again. Wings and tail are reddish brown with darker bars. Supercilium is whitish, contrasting with cap and brown eyestripe and ear-coverts. Underparts are grey, turning into buff on decrease stomach and flanks. Eyes are brown; invoice is darkish brown above and yellowish brown under; legs are pale brown. S*xes are similar. The juvenile quite duller than an grownup with lowered white streaking on again; supercilium is much less apparent.

DISTRIBUTION

Breeds across North America from New Brunswick and Virginia to British Columbia, north to northern Alberta, south to central Midwestern states and California; additionally coastal marshes alongside the jap United States seaboard and Gulf of Mexico. Populations in jap and western North America could also be two distinct species.

HABITAT

Freshwater marshes with cattails, bulrushes, or phragmites; coastal marshes with Spartina. Winter migrants happen ceaselessly in coastal brackish marshes.

BEHAVIOR

Active and noisy, shifting quickly amongst reeds, usually clinging spread-eagled to two separate stems. The hen is very territorial and predatory on eggs, each of its personal species and of others, similar to red-winged blackbirds. Song is a attribute metallic rattle, typically uttered at night time. There are many distinctive patterns of songs, with main variations between jap and western populations.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Food is principally invertebrate, together with beetles, bugs, dragonfly larvae, spiders, and many others. Predated eggs could also be partially eaten. Feeds from the water stage to the tops of reeds, however normally stays pretty low.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Exhibits two options discovered in lots of different wren species to a excessive diploma, a number of nest-building and polygamy. The nest is a domed construction with a aspect entrance normally about three ft (1 m) above water stage. It is product of strips of leaves and grass and lined with down. Eggs quantity three to 10, normally 4 to six, fewer in southern populations. They are brown with darker speckles, not often white. Incubation is by the feminine, for 13–16 days; younger fledge in 13–15 days. Rate of polygamy varies amongst totally different populations; could also be greater than 50% in central Canada, with a big variety of trigamists.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Can be widespread in appropriate habitat. Can attain excessive densities of up to 75 males per acre (190 per ha) in prime habitat. Much habitat loss is due to swamp drainage; conversely, current water impoundments could create habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Has been and continues to be an intense object of analysis due to its advanced song patterns and attention-grabbing breeding conduct.


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