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Brownies are small fairylike beings from
British and Scottish folklore that dwell in human dwellings and assist out with family duties.Traditionally brownies are described as
furry and slightly homely, with ﬂat faces and successful smiles that make up for his or her ugliness. They are usually good-natured and may make themselves invisible, though very younger kids generally can see them. Brownies usually work solely at evening and don’t want tobe seen as they tidy up, mend clothes, and do some other chores crucial to assist “their” people.Brownies will settle for food, significantly milk or cream, however will abandon a home if somebody says inside their listening to that the items are fee. They will deﬁnitely ﬂee any dwelling through which they’re mistreated or, extra mysteriously, if they’re provided items of clothes.Brownies are stated to be protecting of their chosen households. They might turn out to be so connected to them that they transfer wherever the household strikes.In Wales, brownies are referred to as the bwca, or pwca. These useful creatures are keen to carry out small labors, corresponding to churning butter, in alternate for a bowl of cream. But if mistreated, a bwca will pound the partitions, throw small objects, pinch sleeping people, and make life usually disagreeable. A parallel to the British brownie seems within the Grimm Brothers’ story “The Shoemaker and the Elves.”In the early twentieth century, brownies had been popularized within the humorous cartoons accompanied by verse that had been created by Canadian artist and writer Palmer Cox. It is after these brownies that the junior department of the Girl Guides in Britain and Girl Scouts within the United States get their names.More lately, when somebody does a superb deed, she or he is alleged to earn so-called brownie factors, although this extra seemingly refers to the reward system of the Girl Scouts and Girl Guides than to the brownies of folklore. In addition, the Cleveland Browns soccer workforce used a brownie as its mascot from 1946 till the mid-1960s, and once more after 1999.The home elves featured in J.Ok. Rowling’s Harry Potter sequence are comparable to folklore brownies of their habits, particularly when the act of giving a brownie a present of clothes units a brownie free from servitude.
Illuyankas was a harmful Hittite dragon being.
Illuyankas defeated the Hittite storm god, Teshub, in a battle at Kiskilussa, in what’s now Turkey. Seeking revenge, Teshub’s daughter, Inaras, invited Illuyankas to a feast. Once he was too gorged to transfer, Illuyankas was killed by the storm god and the opposite gods.In one other model of the parable, Illuyankas not solely defeated Teshub but in addition stole the storm god’s eyes and coronary heart. Illuyankas’s daughter married Teshub’s son. The son managed to get the stolen eyes and coronary heart again and returned them to his father. Teshub was then in a position to slay Illuyankas. When Teshub’s son sided with the dragon, the storm god killed him as properly.
The ritual of Illuyankas’s defeat was invoked each spring to symbolize Earth’s rebirth.
In the world folklore story kind “heart in the egg,” the villain of the story, an ogre, a sorcerer, a satan, or another supernatural being, couldn’t be killed as a result of he saved his coronary heart, or his life pressure, hidden other than his physique. The solely means to slay the villain was to ﬁnd and destroy his coronary heart.There are many variations of this story kind. The fundamental story begins with somebody, normally a princess, or one thing, equivalent to a magical object, that have to be rescued or recovered from the villain. In the case of the princess, the villain could also be holding her both as a prize or as a potential bride.The hero could also be a prince or a commoner. He could also be wandering misplaced in the forest and stumble across the villain’s house, or he could also be intentionally questing for the princess. Along the means, the hero helps an animal, or three animals, who guarantees to assist him when he most wants such assist.The hero might attempt to fail to kill the villain, or be warned in time not to attempt. The princess, or the villain’s spouse or lover, tells the hero the place the coronary heart could also be discovered and the way the villain could be slain. There are normally three to 4 ranges of safety for the coronary heart. For instance, the coronary heart could also be in an egg in a hen in a ﬁsh in a fox.
The hero calls upon his animal helper or helpers. If there’s one helper, the animal helps the hero destroy the layers defending the coronary heart. If there are three helpers, then every in flip destroys one stage till the egg is revealed. The hero destroys the egg, and the villain dies.Examples of this story kind could be discovered across Europe and the Near East, in addition to in North America and the Caribbean. The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky used this story kind in his ballet The Firebird (1910). The ballet follows the fundamental story of the captive princess, the useful animal, the deathless villain, and the hidden soul that the hero destroys.
In Slavic mythology and folklore, a Leshy or Leshiye was a nature spirit, each the lord of the forest and its coronary heart, in addition to a trickster. As changeable as nature, a leshy assorted his look as usually as he happy. A leshy may be as tall as a tree or so small that he may slip below a blade of grass. He may be a whirlwind of leaves, an owl, a wolf, and even an outdated man clad in fur.It was simpler to hear than to see a leshy. His voice would possibly imitate the rustle of the leaves or the sighing of the wind in the bushes. With alluring or tempting calls he additionally may entice people off secure forest paths. The leshy did this for enjoyable, though this trickster’s concept of enjoyable may endanger and even kill people.Once a human realized she or he had misplaced the trail, the one hope for escape was to make the leshy snicker. The easiest method to do that was to strip and put each merchandise of clothes again on, both inside out or backward. A leshy discovered this silliness irresistibly humorous, and the human would hear laughter and ﬁnd himself or herself all of the sudden returned to the acquainted path. But ought to a human be silly sufficient to really anger a leshy, there was no escape. The unlucky had been led into the deep forest and tickled to dying.The leshy, like different forest beings, was attuned to the seasons and hibernated in the course of the winter. When he awoke in the spring, the leshy was at his most harmful, operating wild and almost senseless with primal pleasure. Women had been in specific peril at such a time, for the reason that leshy would rape any girl he discovered in his path. In the summer season, the leshy was in a much less harmful way of thinking. Summer was when he performed his tips on people however hardly ever harmed them. In the autumn, the leshy may be extra quarrelsome, wanting to ﬁght and frighten off any wild creatures that bought too shut.It was believed that two leshiye would possibly gamble to see who would win a prize of squirrels. Every now and once more, squirrels in the Russian woods truly do migrate from one forest to one other. The sight of such mass migrations, in accordance to people beliefs, meant that one leshy had misplaced a bet to one other and had forfeited his squirrels.
Abylina is a Russian folks epic ballad about
a number of of the heroes in Russian lore. The earliest bylini had been composed within the tenth century. The custom was completely oral till the nineteenth century, when skilled folklorists found that performers of the bylini had been residing by the shore of the White Sea. It was these folklorists who gave the people epics the title bylina, a phrase that comes from the previous tense in Russian of the verb “to be.” In English, the phrase could be roughly translated to imply “something that was.”The singers that the researchers recorded recited the bylini in a singsong, monotonous voice with none instrumental accompaniment. Bylini singers within the Middle Ages, nonetheless, had been typically skaziteli, or minstrels, who generally accompanied themselves with gusli, or small zithers.Most of the bylini focus on Russian folks heroes and could be classiﬁed into three teams. The tales of the Kievan cycle inform of the bogatyeari, who had been the knights of Prince Vladimir of Kiev. The second group, the Novgorod cycle, is worried with town of Novgorod. And a ﬁnal group of epics is comprised of a normal mythic or supernatural collection of bylini. One well-known instance of the latter is the epic of Vol’ka the magician, also referred to as Mikula Selyaninovich, a peasant hero who’s athinly veiled pagan earth god.Many of the bylini, together with that of Vol’ka, comprise an intriguing combine of pagan and Christian components. All sorts of bylini are wealthy sources of Russian folklore.
Etana was a legendary Babylonian king who dominated in the Sumerian metropolis of Kish after thegreat ﬂood. The fable of Etana, written in Akkadian in the ﬁrst millennium B.C.E., was recognized in antiquity as They Planned Out a City or The Series of Etana. The narrative revolves across the interplay amongst an eagle, a serpent, and Etana.The gods had established town of Kish and appointed Etana as its king. Etana constructed a shrine for the storm god, Adad, in the shade ofa poplar tree. An eagle lived in the tree’s crown, and a serpent constructed its nest in the tree’s roots. The two had been pals and swore a mutual oath of friendship earlier than the solar god, Shamash, every promising to deal with the opposite’s younger.At ﬁrst, each the snake and the eagle revered the phrases of their pact, every taking turns searching wild animals to feed their younger. One day, after his younger had grown, the eagle plotted evil, figuring out to eat the serpent’s youngsters. The eagle’s littlest ﬂedgling, one who was sensible, tried to dissuade his father, however to no avail. The eagle devoured the serpent’s younger and destroyed the nest along with his talons.Upon his return from a searching journey, the serpent discovered that his offspring had been gone. He turned to the god Shamash, imploring the god of justice to punish the evil eagle and avenge his loss. The divine choose suggested the serpent to conceal in the carcass of a wild ox and lie in watch for the ravenous hen. When the eagle got here to eat, the snake ought to assault his foe and punish him for his offense.Unaware of the entice and ignoring the warning given to him by his sensible little ﬂedgling, the eagle circled above after which swooped down on his prey. At that second, the serpent emerged from his hiding place, seized the eagle, clipped his wings, plucked out his pinion and tail feathers, and imprisoned him in a bottomless pit.
Left to die of starvation and thirst, the eagle urged Shamash for assist, however to no avail. The god denounced the eagle’s wickedness and abominable deed. Months glided by. Finally Shamash heeded the eagle’s name and developed a plan to ship a human agent to assist.In town of Kish, Etana had been praying to Shamash to grant him an inheritor. In a dream, Etana heard the voice of the god of justice telling him to go to assistance from the eagle, who in return for his help would assist him ﬁnd a legendary plant of fertility. Etana crossed the mountains and located the pit with the crippled eagle inside.Etana stood on the fringe of the pit and instructed the eagle that he would save his life in return for data on the plant of delivery. The hen agreed. Etana ﬁlled in the pit in order that the eagle may climb out, and the eagle ﬂapped his wings, prepared to ﬂy. The two set out in quest of the plant of delivery. Etana mounted the hen, his palms on the wing feathers. They ﬂew aloft and ascended to the heavens. Etana started to panic. He may now not see the land or ﬁnd the nice sea. Etana begged the eagle to descend.The preserved a part of the story ends with Etana’s return from his ﬂight. The pill that bears the parable is damaged in key spots. It isn’t recognized whether or not Etana’s quest for the plant of delivery was profitable, though one other text refers to his offspring who succeeded him on the throne as king of Kish.
Heqat (Hekat/Heket) was one in every of many Egyptian deities of fertility and childbirth. She appeared as a frog or a frog-headed girl.Some texts communicate not speciﬁcally of Heqat however of frog goddesses. The prodigious fertility of frogs, and their emergence from the waters of the Nile, fostered their use as an emblem for the idea of “repeating life.” Amulets and different representations of frogs typically, although not all the time, signify this goddess.Heqat was related to the final phases of the ﬂooding of the Nile and, over time, with the final phases of childbirth. Her partner was the ram-headed creator god, Khnum. In some tales, she helped Khnum to create a person and the person’s soul (ka) on a potter’s wheel.Heqat appeared on sure magical objects, referred to as wands or knives, which had been utilized in rituals to assist childbirth. Later, when the legend of Osiris and Isis developed, it was Heqat who breathed life into the physique of their son Horus.
In Greek mythology, Hector, prince of Troy, was the town’s biggest hero. He performed an necessary position in Troy’s protection towards the Greeks throughout the Trojan War, and he led the Trojan military into battle.Hector was the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba. He is described in the Iliad asbrave and honorable, an excellent chief, and a loving husband.The nice Greek warrior Achilles refused to ﬁght the Trojans after a quarrel with King Agamemnon, the Greek commander. Since Achilles refused to lead the Greek forces, his good friend Patroclus wore Achilles’s armor and fought in his place.Hector, considering he was going through Achilles, killed Patroclus. This introduced Achilles again into the battle, in search of revenge for his good friend’s demise. Hector’s sense of honor made him ﬁght Achilles, regardless that he knew that he would die. And Hector did die by Achilles’s hand.
Heimdall was the Norse god of mild. He was truthful of face and had shining golden tooth. He was generally known as Guillintani, or Gold Tooth. Heimdall’s main position was because the guardian god who watched over Bifrost, the one entrance to Asgard, the house of Norse deities. Heimdall protected Asgard from invasion, significantly in opposition to the gods’ major enemies, the giants.Heimdall was stated to be the son of 9 moms. These had been both the daughters of Geirrendour the Giant or of Aegir, or 9 personiﬁed waves. Heimdall was born on the finish of the world and raised by the forces of the earth, on seawater and the blood of a boar.Heimdall required much less sleep than a hen, and he might see 100 miles round him, by evening in addition to by day. No sound escaped his listening to. Heimdall was in a position to hear the grass rising and the wool rising on a sheep’s again.Heimdall had a corridor on the sting of Asgard
known as Himinbjorg, or Cliffs of Heaven. His horse was known as Gulltop. Heimdall carried a sword and a horn, known as Gjallar. Heimdall blew this horn in warning when hazard threatened Asgard. The sound of Gjallar would announce the beginning of the ﬁnal mythic battle, Ragnarok.
Heimdall was additionally Rig, or Ruler, the god who created the three primary divisions of human society, thrall (slaves), carl (peasants), and earl (noble warriors). Although the story is fragmentary, it was virtually definitely in his position as Rig that this god rode out to rescue the Brisingamen. This treasured necklace ofamber gave the stunning goddess Freya her charms and in addition victory to no matter military she favored.The Brisingamen had been stolen by the trickster deity, Loki, who then disguised himself as a seal. But Heimdall was in a position to observe down Loki, ﬁght him, and defeat him within the type of one other seal. The treasured necklace was returned to Freya.From that day on, it was stated that Heimdall and Loki turned bitter enemies. Indeed, on the ﬁnal conﬂict of Ragnarok, Heimdall was to ﬁght and kill Loki, although he would then die from his wounds.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the harpies have been creatures who have been employed by the upper gods to perform punishment for crimes.
The title harpies comes from the Greek phrase harpuai, which means “robbers.” Early Greek myths featured them as winged, stunning girls. Over time, the picture modified from girls to winged monsters with outdated girls’s faces and sharp talons. There have been three foremost harpies, referred to as Aello, Ocypete, and Celaeno. These three have been both the daughters of a nymph, Electra, and a large, Thaumas, or, in different accounts, the offspring of two storm deities.The harpies carried criminals off to the underworld, stealing or fouling their food till the wrongdoers starved. King Phineus of Thrace was punished in this manner for his crime of cruelty towards his son and contempt of the gods. Phineus was finally let loose. He helped the Greek adventurers often known as the Argonauts toﬁnd the Golden Fleece. Calais and Zetes, two Argonauts who have been the winged sons of Boreas, have been grateful for Phineus’s assist and drove the harpies away.
Today, the phrase harpy is used to describe a shrewish girl.
Anti-Semitism are words, actions, and attitudes directed towards Jews as a result of they’re Jews. The time period was truly coined in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, a German conservative politician, to determine an anti-Jewish racial coverage that he and his fellow conservatives advocated. In the 20th century anti-Semitism led to the homicide of roughly 6 million Jews within the HOLOCAUST.ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE ANCIENT WORLDAlthough the phrase was ﬁ rst coined in 1879, anti- Semitism is under no circumstances new. After the conquests of Alexander the Great (d. 323 B.C.E.), Greek- talking or “Hellenistic” tradition grew to become the norm all through the japanese Mediterranean area and the Near East. Those who favored Hellenistic tradition at occasions appeared down upon Jews. Many Greeks valued cause in pursuit of the reality. Some of them noticed the Jews’ reliance upon God’s revelation as superstition. Even extra Greeks noticed the follow of CIRCUMCISION, an vital signal of identification for Jewish males, as a distasteful mutilation of the physique.
Hellenistic tradition was not, nevertheless, the pri- mary supply of anti-Semitism within the historic world; CHRISTIANITY was. Some see proof of anti-Semitism in essentially the most sacred writings of Christianity, the New Testament. Pertinent passages embrace Mat- thew 23, John 8.34-47, and, most fatefully, Mat- thew 27.25, by which “the Jews” proclaim them- selves and their descendants responsible of JESUS’ demise. Many biblical students see these and different pas- sages as motivated by ﬁ erce competitors between Jews and early Christians. They don’t contemplate them traditionally dependable.
On the premise of such passages, historic Chris- tian academics may utter ﬁ ercely anti-Semitic state- ments. For instance, John Chrysostom (c. 347-407), a frontrunner of the Orthodox Church in Asia Minor (now Turkey), taught that Jews had been viler than wild animals and that each one Christians had an obliga- tion to hate them. AUGUSTINE, bishop of Hippo and one of essentially the most inﬂ uential Roman Catholic think- ers, wrote a “Tractate against the Jews.” He taught that Jews must be humiliated in punishment for rejecting Jesus.ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE MEDIEVAL AND REFORMATION PERIODSDuring the Middle Ages, anti-Semitic exercise shifted from the areas across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe.Jews had been systematically barred from many financial establishments. The theologian Thomas AQUINAS taught that as a result of Jews had been responsible of deicide (“killing God”), princes had been permitted to take their property every time they wished. Especially from 1200 on, Jews had been required to reside in separate areas, generally surrounded by partitions. In Italian these areas had been referred to as ghettos.
In the identical interval rumors about Jews abounded. They had been mentioned to conspire towards Christianity, intentionally to desecrate the host (communion bread) as that they had desecrated Christ’s physique, and to kill Christian youngsters and use their blood for RITUAL functions. Some European Christians used the final cost to justify lynching Jews for over 800 years. Also throughout the Middle Ages, Jews had been expelled from each nation in Europe besides Poland. They fell sufferer to pogroms or massacres, for instance throughout the CRUSADES and the Black Death (1348-50). In addition, some Jews had been severely pursued by the Spanish INQUISITION.
The Protestant REFORMATION (the 16th century) introduced extra of the identical. For instance, Martin LUTHER thought he had puriﬁ ed Christianity of each obstacle that had prevented people from turning into Christian. He was offended that Jews didn’t convert. In 1543 he wrote a e-book, Against the Jews and Their Lies. In it he inspired his followers to burn down synagogues and steal land owned by Jews.ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE MODERN PERIOD AND THE PRESENTThe motion of thought often known as the Enlightenment (the 17th century to the 18th century) modified the place of Jews in European society. It taught that each one human beings, by advantage of being human, loved sure fundamental civil rights.
According to the American “Declaration of Independence,” these rights included “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Inﬂuenced by this sort of pondering, one European nation after one other eliminated authorized restrictions that had been placed on Jews. Especially throughout the 19th century Jews started in idea to take part equally as full members of European society.
In the late 19th century, nevertheless, a backlash arose. Some politicians used concepts about race and genetics to develop an anti-Semitic program. They attributed a barrage of vices to Jews and lobbied for the reimposition of conventional restrictions. In the 20th century this backlash attained horrid pro- parts within the Nazi HOLOCAUST.
Anti-Semitism persists immediately, however amongst Americans and Europeans overt anti-Semitism is usually conﬁ ned to marginal teams such because the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis. The institution of the state of Israel in 1948 has prompted the rise of anti-Semitism within the Islamic world, the place it had beforehand been much less prevalent. In the United States, anti-Semitic statements by leaders of the Nation of Islam have contributed to tensions between the Jewish and African-American communities.Anti-Semitism, nevertheless has a protracted historical past. It has been espe- cially frequent amongst European Christians and their descendants. At least for the final 1,000 years, this historical past has included extreme atrocities.
At the identical time, it might be very incorrect to assume of all Christians and Muslims as anti-Semites. Especially since World War II, many Christian church buildings and denominations have labored arduous to develop an appreciation and respect for JUDAISM.
Hannahanna is the Hittite mom of the gods.
This temperamental matriarch helped to settle home points. She mended a rift between the storm god, Teshub, and his son, Telepinu. When the adolescent stormed off in a ﬁt of rage, Teshub complained to Hannahanna. The goddess despatched Teshub to search forhis son. When the daddy was unsuccessful, Hannahanna directed one of her bees to sting Telepinu awake in order that he would return dwelling.Hannahanna additionally had her personal ﬁt of anger and disappeared for a time. While she was gone, cattle and sheep bore no younger, and each human and animal moms ignored their youngsters. It was solely when Hannahanna’s anger was despatched to the so-called Dark Earth that she returned in pleasure and all was regular once more.
Hannahanna additionally made certain that marital affairs ran easily. When the daughter of the ocean god married Telepinu, it was Hannahanna who instructed Teshub to pay the ocean god the bride value, making the wedding ofﬁcial.
In Norse mythology, Hel was the ruler of Helheim, or Niﬂheim, the realm of the lifeless, which she dominated from her nice corridor, Elijudnir, house of the lifeless.Hel was the youngest little one of the trickster god, Loki, and the enormous girl Angrboda, or Distress-Bringer. Her older siblings have been the savage wolf Fenrir and the serpent Jor-mungand. The gods kidnapped Hel and her brothers from Angrboda’s corridor and solid her into the underworld, the place she remained.Her title means “cover,” in the sense of earth masking a grave. Hel was often described as a horrible ﬁgure, half alive and half lifeless, with a dismal or grim and foreboding expression. Her face and physique have been these of a dwelling girl, however her thighs and legs have been these of a corpse, mottled and moldering. Alternate descriptions state that one facet of her face and physique was alive, the opposite half lifeless, or one facet was a sickly greenish hue and the opposite lifeless white.Hel was generally portrayed as a bringer of illness who swept over the land with a brush or a rake. If she used the broom, there can be no survivors, however the openings between the tines of the rake allowed some to reside.Her throne was a deathbed, and her sub-
jects have been all those that died of previous age, sickness, or felony punishment. (In a warrior society equivalent to that of the traditional Norse, to die of previous age or sickness somewhat than in battle was seen as shameful.) Her manservant was Ganglati, and her maid was Ganglot. The bloodthirsty hound Garm guarded the doorway to her house.Hel was glad to have been given the underworld as her kingdom. In thanks, she gave Odin, the chief of the Aesir, a pair of ravens, Huginn and Muninn. She reigned so powerfully over her realm that when the hero Balder, Odin’s beloved son, was killed by chance, Hel refused to restore him to his mother and father and the land of the dwelling, proving that even the gods are powerless in opposition to dying.Although Hel’s realm was darkish and completely chilly, her title turned related after the approaching of Christianity with the new, ﬁery place of Christian punishment.
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In Greek mythology, Hermes, referred to as Mercury by the Romans, was the trickster and messenger of the Olympian gods.Hermes was the son of Zeus and the nymph Maia. Apollo was Hermes’s older brother. As a new child, Hermes stole a herd of Apollo’s cattle, protecting his tracks by strolling backward. When confronted by his understandably indignant brother, Hermes defused the scenario by giving Apollo a harp that he had crafted out of a turtle shell in trade for the cattle.As the messenger of the gods, Hermes acted as a psychopomp, or soul information, transporting the spirits of the newly lifeless to the underworld. Hermes is often portrayed as a slender, athletic youth. His hat and sandals had wings, and he carried a shepherd’s employees with two serpents twined round it (the caduceus, now a logo of the medical career). Hermes was the patron god of shepherds, vacationers, and thieves. He was honored by pillarlike statues referred to as “herms,” which had been set as highway and boundary markers.In addition to his duties as a messenger, Hermes was typically referred to as upon to assist the gods and the mortals they protected, utilizing his fast intelligence and allure. He freed Odysseus from the grasp of the sorceress Circe when she turned him and his males into pigs. He helped Odysseus once more by convincing the nymph Calypso to enable Odysseus to go away her island and return house. Hermes additionally helped negotiate Persephone’s return from the underworld and guided Orpheus’s spouse, Eurydice, again after Orpheus failed to rescue her from dying.Hermes was the cleverest of the Greek gods. He was credited with many innovations, together with cube, astronomy, the lyeare, ﬁre, and the ﬁrst system of weights and measures.