TAXONOMY

Cervus unicolor Kerr, 1792, Sri Lanka.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Sambar; German: Indischer Pferdehirsch; Spanish: Sambar.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The largest deer in Southeast Asia. Shoulder peak: 35–59 in (90–150 cm); physique size: 6–9 ft (170–270 cm); tail size: 9–14 in (22–35 cm); weight: 220–300 lb (100–350 kg). Its colours are primitive, monotonous over whole physique; ####ual dimorphism is nicely displayed in some species. Antlers are easy, three pointed, later difficult by dividing.

DISTRIBUTION

India, Indochina, and Malaysia.

HABITAT

Inhabitant of moist tropical forests, go to reduce clearings to feed on herbs.

BEHAVIOR

Polygynous. Live solitarily or in small household teams (does, yearlings, fawns). Stags preserve strictly to their residence ranges, which they mark by secretion of pre-antler glands on branches of timber and bushes. Both stags and does are aggressive; stags combat with antlers, does use enamel or begin boxing matches with their rivals. They set up hierarchy solely by fierce fights. In gatherings of 30–40 people, there may be the dominating stag within the heart, does round, subdominants, and younger bachelors at periphery.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feed on leaves, bark, fruits in woods, on grass in clearings, consuming an awesome number of vegetation. Consume numbers of poisonous crops, with out opposed penalties due to particular micro floras in intestines, large measurement of rumen, and plenty of species of different crops consumed on the identical time.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Stags develop antlers in January–April, put on hardened antlers from May–November. Rut happens largely in November– December. Gestation lasts six months, coinciding with rut time. Antler shedding happens in December. Calving peak is April–May, although calving can happen practically all year lengthy.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

The most necessary sport species in India and different international locations. Sambar is bred in sport parks of Australia (greater than 5,000 deer) and elsewhere.


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