Scientific title: Petromyzon marinus 
Scientific classification:
Phylum: Chordata  
Class: Cephalaspidomorphi
Order: Petromyzontiformes
Family: Petromyzontidae

What does it appear like?
The sea lamprey has a snakelike physique with no paired limbs of any type and no jaws. In the place of biting jaws there's an oral disk. The eyes are giant and effectively developed and behind them are seven pairs of gill openings. Toward the top of the animal there are fins operating alongside its again and underside. Color varies, however the again is often inexperienced or grey, whereas the stomach is white or pale grey. A completely grown sea lamprey could also be as a lot as 1 m lengthy.

Where does it dwell?
The habitat of the ocean lamprey is the northern Atlantic Ocean and the western Mediterranean, along with streams on the jap coast of North America, Western Europe, and the Mediterranean basin.

Characteristics

The sea lamprey is a relic, an actual blast from the previous. It has many options of the primary, primitive backboned animals, and it by some means manages to survive in a world dominated by increased, extra advanced types. Like many, outwardly primitive animals, the ocean lamprey has a really fascinating life historical past and some distinctive diversifications permitting it to thrive in numerous completely different areas. The tiny eggs of a feminine lamprey are a bit of over 1 mm in diameter. These shell-much less, unspecialized eggs hatch into 6–10 mm, pink, wormlike larvae, that are so not like their mother and father that early biologists described them as distinct animals, christening them ammocoetes. For per week or so after they hatch the ammocoetes keep within the nest, surviving on the rest of the yolk shops that sustained them throughout their time within the egg. Soon, the time is prepared for them to depart and they stand up into the fl owing water to be carried downstream by the present. The speeding water deposits them in sleepy backwaters or calm banks. Here they burrow into the tender sediment and that is the place they continue to be for the subsequent three to seven years, safely tucked away of their muddy retreat, filtering the water for edible matter. Their oral hood tasks from the burrow the place it acts as a funnel to channel water via the muscular, pumping pharynx the place particles of food are trapped in a layer of sticky mucus earlier than being swallowed. When it's round 10 cm lengthy, it's time for the larva to start the transformation that may flip it right into a younger grownup lamprey. This metamorphosis takes place in mid-summer season and by the spring of the subsequent year the juvenile could also be prepared to start its lengthy, arduous migration to the ocean. The grownup lamprey is kind of a special beast to the larva. Gone are the fragile hood and the genteel, filter feeding lifestyle. In its place there's a carnivorous parasite with feeding equipment straight out of a nightmare. The oral disk of the grownup lamprey is wreathed with sharp, conical, inward curving enamel and in its mouth there's a rasping, muscular tongue. In the ocean, the lamprey swims with awkward undulations of its serpentine physique, trying to find appropriate prey. When they find a fish or even perhaps a marine mammal they latch on with their tooth-lined sucker and start to rasp on the fl esh of the prey. As they tear and rend the pores and skin and muscle of the prey they secrete an anticoagulant that retains the blood fl owing freely. After they've gorged themselves on this extremely nutritious food they let go to digest their meal leaving the prey with a big gaping wound, which may sometimes be deadly. After one year of this ravenous conduct they head away from the open ocean and again to their breeding grounds within the continental freshwater streams. Their progress is sluggish as they have to battle the present and obstacles. Waterfalls might be overcome by utilizing their oral sucker to cling on to the moist rocks and hoist themselves slowly via the speeding water of the cataract. As quickly as they attain an appropriate spot the males and feminine set about setting up nests within the gravelly bottoms of their breeding streams. They thrash their our bodies round and use their suckers to transfer bigger stones. After an excessive amount of exertion an oval despair has been shaped into which the feminine sheds her eggs, carefully adopted by the fertilizing sperm of the male. This reproductive gesture is the final they make and the lampreys die quickly after breeding is full. The nests fill in with sand and silt carried by the present and the younger, unseen, develop steadily, prepared to start the intriguing cycle once more.

Key Facts

  • There are 41 identified species of lamprey, 17 of that are present in North America. The sea lamprey is the largest. They are discovered all around the world, besides the excessive polar areas and the tropics. Fossils of lamprey ancestors are uncommon, however stays have been present in rocks from the early Carboniferous interval, greater than 320 million years outdated. It could be very probably the historical past of these animals extends even additional again into the mists of time.
  • Some lampreys, not like the ocean lamprey, aren't parasitic. They develop as ammocoetes within the river sediment however breed straight after metamorphosis and then die. Other lamprey don't journey to the ocean, however dwell out their parasitic existence in freshwater streams and rivers.
  • The skeleton of the lamprey could be very easy and consists of cartilage and not bone. There are vertebrae alongside the backbone, however they're very small. The mind is small and is placed above the blind ending channel of the single nostril.
  • The ravenous feeding conduct of the lampreys, notably the bigger species places them into direct battle with fishermen, who blame these animals for depleting fish shares. A lamprey, latched onto a big fish will eat as a lot as it will probably at one web site earlier than releasing its grip and attaching onto a brand new space. The result's a fish with giant elements of its physique stripped nearly down to the bone.
  • The lampreys, after discovering their manner into the nice lakes via man-made canals have ravaged fish shares and quite a few measures have been employed to attempt and cease them, together with chemical toxins and traps.