TAXONOMY

Raphicerus campestris campestris (Thunberg, 1811), Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Seven proposed subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Steenbuck, steinbuck, steinbok; French: Steenbok; German: Steinbockchen; Spanish: Steenbok.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Slender, sleek antelope, third largest of the neotragines however nonetheless solely 18–24 in (45–60 cm) tall, 28–35 in size (70–90 cm), and weighing 18–33 lb (8–15 kg). Body colour ranges from gentle beige to reddish brown; stomach, chest, chin, and ear-linings are white to off-white. Large ears and quick tail; horns are sharp, skinny, and upright in males, up to 6 in (15 cm) in size.

DISTRIBUTION

Displays two distinct distributions, with the primary in East Africa in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, and the second in southern Africa from Angola and Zambia south to the Cape of South Africa. The largest populations in the present day happen in Namibia and Botswana.

HABITAT

Varies from desert scrub habitats close to the Kalahari to moist mountain forests in Kenya. Generally happens in bushy or scrubby areas of open habitats reminiscent of dry blended savannas and grassland plains. Areas cleared by hearth, heavy grazing, logging, or for cultivation are rapidly occupied. Densities in optimum habitats are as excessive as 10 animals per mi 2 (Four per km2), however extra typical densities are 1–2 per mi 2 (0.3–1.Zero per km2).

BEHAVIOR

Highly territorial, each ####es actively defend the territory by chasing same-#### intruders and by scent marking with urine, feces, and secretions of the pre-orbital, pedal, and different glands. Vocalizations between people embrace goat-like bleats, whistles, and growls. Typically drops to the bottom and freezes as a primary response to approaching hazard and flees in a zig-zag sample if the menace strikes close to.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Primarily a browser, it should typically feed close to floor stage on roots and low shrubs, but in addition shoots, flowers, and fruits of bushes; generally eats soil for its nutrient content material. Desertadapted, it may well survive with little or no entry to open water. Water stability is maintained by choice of crops of excessive water content material and inactivity throughout hottest instances of the day. Animals are energetic in day and evening in wetter habitats and are most energetic nocturnally in very dry areas.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Adults are solitary or happen as pairs, and not often as small, polygynous teams, on territories of 10–37 acres (4–15 ha). Breeding pairs are generally secure for a number of years. Mating is adopted by gestation of about 170 days, at which period one lamb is born. Young lay hidden for 3 to 5 months earlier than becoming a member of their mom. Birth generally coincides with wet seasons. Females in some areas have been noticed to breed twice per 12 months.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lower Risk/Least Concern. Declining in unprotected elements of its vary the place it suffers from overhunting, however it's secure and effectively represented in protected areas. Overall, the outlook for the species seems good if protected areas stay intact. Like different neotragines, this species is susceptible to predation by home canines.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Included in conventional African folklore, pores and skin used for drums, conventional clothes, and crafts. Meat is taken into account to be of fine high quality by people; this species is eaten all through its vary.