TAXONOMY
Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Asia.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Body size 98.4–118.1 in (250–300 cm); shoulder top 59–74.Four in (150–189 cm); tail size 23.6–39.three in (60–100 cm); weight 1,543–2,645 lb (700–1,200 kg). Females are barely smaller and weight about 20% lower than males. The largest member of the Bovinae, it's a heavy, cumbersome animal with disproportionately massive toes, whose vast hooves assist it keep away from sinking too deeply within the mud because it strikes about wetlands and swamps. Pelage of untamed water buffalo, though considerably sparse, is darkish grey to black; domesticated kinds can exhibit a variety of coat colours. The comparatively lengthy tail ends with a bushy tuft of black hairs. Males have large crescent-shaped pointed horns about 47.2 in (120 cm) lengthy which can be virtually triangular in cross-section and with heavy ridges on their floor. With the flattened aspect of the triangular horn dealing with upward, the horns prolong again, virtually parallel with the slope of the face. Females even have horns, which after adjusting for his or her smaller measurement, are comparatively the identical measurement as in males. Domesticated water buffalo have a lot smaller our bodies, virtually one-half the scale, and in addition smaller horns than the wild type.

DISTRIBUTION
In the mid-twentieth century, they occurred in two areas. In one area, they had been distributed from central peninsular India, north to Nepal, and east to Bhutan. In the second area, they occurred on the Malay Peninsula and north and east to Vietnam, with some on the north portion of the Island of Borneo. This distribution is now severely contracted and fragmented. Currently, wild populations exist in just a few protected areas in India, Nepal, and Bhutan. Another small inhabitants happens in a wildlife reserve in Thailand.

HABITAT
Inhabit tropical and subtropical forests and grassland biomes. Within these biomes, they're intently related to water and surrounding habitats starting from lowland swamps to forests, woodlands, and grasslands, and swamps alongside alluvial plains. These riparian habitats are a mixture of tall, dense grasslands interspersed with open forests, aspect streams, and small lakes surrounded by quick grasses. This advanced of habitat varieties gives ample forage, in addition to forest or dense thickets for canopy, together with water, not solely to drink, but in addition for creating muddy wallows by which they spend lengthy durations of the day partially submerged.

BEHAVIOR
In early research made within the Assam area of northwestern India, they fashioned herds of 10–20 people, though up to 100 animals had been noticed in some teams; these teams had been very cohesive. In northern Australia, feral buffalo are ample and certain exhibit social conduct related to that anticipated for wild buffalo of their pure vary. Adult females, their younger, and sub-adult females type small teams of up to 30 members. Around three years of age, males depart these maternal teams to type all-male teams of up to 10 younger bulls. Old males have a tendency to be solitary. Several maternal teams are sometimes loosely organized into a bigger herd that collectively occupy a standard dwelling vary and should come collectively nightly. Can often be discovered for lengthy durations in the course of the day immersed in water or mendacity in muddy wallows.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Primarily grazers, they devour massive portions of grasses, but in addition eat herbs, aquatic vegetation, and different vegetation from among the many extremely productive grasslands and marshes of their dwelling vary.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY
Polygynous. After a gestation of 300–340 days, cows give delivery to a reddish brown to yellow-brown calf. Normally, just one calf is born, however sometimes females will give delivery to twins. They nurse for six–9 months. The feminine sometimes produces one calf each second 12 months. Females can first mate when 1.5 years outdated. Males normally don't depart maternal herds till three years outdated. In some areas, mating and delivery present little seasonal periodicity. This can lead to calves being discovered at any time of the 12 months inside a herd. In different areas the place there are seasonal variations to forage provides, there might be extra distinct mating and birthing durations.

CONSERVATION STATUS
Classified as Endangered. While domesticated water buffalo are very ample and distributed effectively past their pure historic vary, there are in all probability fewer than 4,000 wild water buffalo left on the earth, most of that are in Assam, India. Within the close to future, the species faces a excessive danger of extinction within the wild. Existing populations are very small and restricted to just a few nature reserves, most of that are broadly separated from one another. The essential threats to the species are from looking and from encroachment by agriculture and livestock. As effectively, the wild water buffalo is threatened by hybridization with domesticated kinds and by ailments transmitted from home livestock.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Offer food, hides, and different merchandise to people. However, their most important worth to people started 6,000 to 7,000 years in the past after they had been first domesticated in China close to the mouth of the Yangtze River. One of an important domesticated species in southern and jap Asia, they're additionally essential in most different subtropical and tropical elements of the world. Large feral populations are established in locations similar to Australia. Domestic water buffalo proceed to present, as well as to meat, horn, and hides, milk and butter fats. They additionally present low price, accessible sources of energy for plowing fields and transportation of people and their crops.


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